Definition and types of valves for pipeline transportation Valves in gas and liquid pipeline systems are generally called emergency flow restriction devices (EFRD) or throttle shutoff valves. This term is defined in detail in API-1130 (2002). Most valves are composed of outlet and inlet, orifice (or valve seat) and discs (cock, gasket, etc.) that seal the orifice. The inlet and outlet of the valve are also called ports. The pipeline transportation company uses its liquid and gas pipeline transportation network to continuously deliver the required quantity of products to the customer company or the customer's delivery point. Valves and valve operators are an integral part of this system. Types of trunk valves: The four main types of valves used in trunk pipeline transportation are as follows: (1) Gate valves. (2) Ball valve. (3) Plug valve. (4) Check valve. There are also some valves used to control, limit and/or reduce pressure and flow. Most of these valves are used in pumps, compressors, and metering stations. They can also be used on trunk pipelines when needed. These valves are: (1) Shut-off valve. (2) Safety valve. (3) Control valve. The following introduces typical valves used in pipeline systems, including battlefield valves and compressors, pump unit valves, metering stations, and oil and gas transfer valves. Trunk shutoff valve or throttle shutoff valve: This kind of valve is not often used, but if the pipeline must be closed for operation and maintenance reasons, it is necessary to use this kind of valve to separate the pipeline. Such valves are usually flat gate valve
s or ball valves (forged or cast) with assembled valve bodies. In some earlier pipeline installations, a reduced-diameter plug valve was found to be used as a shut-off valve, because this kind of valve would make it impossible to clean the pipe. This situation is no longer common. Station valves: These valves are used to isolate the compressor or pumping station from the pipeline, or to control the flow and isolation pressure control valves flowing through the pigging and receiving ball. These valves are used more frequently than main line valves, and are generally ball valves or flat gate valves with assembled valve bodies. Compressor and pump unit valves: This type of valve is generally an assembled or forged ball valve. When the compressor and pump unit are not used, they are used to isolate them and to meet the start-up requirements of the unit (such as electric pumps). Ensure its normal use. Usually, each unit also has a suction valve and a discharge valve. When the unit (such as an electrically driven pump) is started, generally only the discharge valve is closed in order to reduce the starting load on the motor. However, when the discharge valve is opened, the resulting high pressure difference will cause high load and severe stress on the valve assembly. The high-velocity fluid in the semi-open valve and the particulate matter present in the fluid will cause erosion of the valve seat and core. Therefore, the valve seat O-ring must be elastic and flexible, so that the valve can still be sealed even when the metal surface of the valve is scored due to the presence of such particles. The industry also uses automatic telescopic valves as unit valves. Oil and gas transfer and metering station valves: Chapter 6 has a detailed introduction to this. These valves are generally located at handover facilities that transport gases or liquids to customers. Valves are usually closed and non-foaming to ensure that there is no loss of product or fluid volume, or to ensure that other products are not leaked and contaminated by negligence in measuring instruments and fluid delivery equipment. The valve in the oil-gas transfer station is usually a special raised plug valve with an elastic valve seat with insert, double closure and relief system to achieve a non-foaming seal. In gas metering, these valves are usually double closed and bleed ball valves. The following will introduce the operation and daily maintenance requirements of the above-mentioned trunk line delivery valve.
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