Valves are widely used in pipeline transportation systems to cut off, divide or adjust fluid flow. According to the required function, the valve state can be adjusted manually, automatically or a combination of manual and automatic. Automated operation can be initiated by a signal from the control device, and the valve can also automatically respond to changes in system conditions. The valve types generally used in the hydrocarbon industry are as follows: (1) Cast steel valves. (2) Forged steel valve. (3) Copper valve (not suitable for acid gas or fuel transportation). (4) Cast iron valve. (5) Lubrication plug valve: ·cast steel; ·cast iron. (6) Pressure relief valve and safety relief valve · Cast steel, · Cast iron. (7) Industrial valves: ·Butterfly valves, ·Ball valves, ·Check valves. (8) Water supply system valve. (9) Wellhead and API 6A valve. (10) APl6D pipeline valve: · Trunnion ball valve, · Fixed seal, · Expansion seal. 1) Control valve: electric drive valve, automatic hydraulic valve, digital electronic control valve, pressure relief valve, fire pump pressure relief valve, fire protection system pressure control valve pressure control valve, diaphragm check valve
, waterproof valve, solenoid control valve, Flow rate valve: pressure reducing valve; height control valve, float control valve, fuel system valve. Since pipelines are used to transport liquid hydrocarbons, valves have been widely used in pipeline transportation systems (especially liquid transportation pipelines). The specific type of valve selected depends on the parameters, including pressure drop, leakage (leakage of the valve seat and system), liquid type, startup requirements, cost and maintenance requirements. Figure 5-1 briefly describes some of the most commonly used valves in the pipeline transportation industry. Table 5-1 outlines the design features of the valves used in the hydrocarbon pipeline transportation system (seldem, 2004). The first use of valves in hydrocarbon pipelines is currently difficult to verify. Major milestones can be summarized as follows: (1) 1882: Chapman Valve Company was established. (2) 1906: The Interstate Petroleum Pipeline Act (Hepburn Act) was promulgated. (3) 1915: The first American Society of Mechanical Engineers pressure vessel regulations were promulgated. (4) 1924: The Valve and Pipe Fittings Manufacturers Standardization Association issued valve standards for the first time. (5) 1924: Valve Standardization Organization-Valve and Fitting Industry Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS) (6) 1924: The first flange and flange fitting standards of the American Petroleum Institute were promulgated. (7) 1925: Ludlow Valve Company (the current brand name is Patterson Pump) was established (8) 1927: The American Standards Association (ASA) promulgated the flange and flange fitting standards for the first time. (9) 1928: Joseph Heinen, who repaired valves in the Los Angeles Basin oil field, founded General Valve Services. (10) In 1935: B-3l was promulgated, the interim standard for pressure piping in the United States was in accordance with regulations (B-31.4, the predecessor of the petroleum transportation pipeline system regulations, was first promulgated in 1959). (11) 1935: Grove Valve was established. (12) 1961: United valve company (United valve) was established. (13) 1962: Daniel Valve was established. (14) 1974: The first draft of API 598 'Valve Inspection and Testing' was issued. (15) 1977: Promulgation of the Department of Energy Organization Act [Transfer of Intercontinental Petroleum Pipeline Regulations from the Intercontinental Commerce Commission (ICC) to the U.S. Department of Energy and then to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission]. (16) 1990: The American valve manufacturer established the Valve Maintenance Committee. (17) 1992: The US Energy Policy Act was promulgated. Figure 5-2 shows the design of the gate valve
of Chapman Valve Company in 1882 (United Valve Company, 2002). The figure shows the integral casting seat of the casting bypass assembly. Before fusion welding, this was the most common way to install a bypass on a gate valve. From 1920 to 1930, a typical check valve is shown in Figure 5-2. This one-way check valve was designed and produced by Ludlow Valve Company. Ludlow valves are still in production, but the trademark has been changed to PabMn Pump. The earlier product design is described in detail in other documents (United Valve Corporation, 2002, VMA2004).
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